60,000 Thessaloniki Residents to Evacuate so WWII bomb to force major evacuation


Authorities in Greece’s second-largest city are planning to evacuate up to 70,000 residents from their homes so experts can safely defuse a 250kg of an unexploded World War II bomb. 

The evacuation in Thessaloniki is set for Sunday, and people living 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) around the bomb site will be kept away from the area for up to five hours, officials say.

The bomb was found 5 meters (over 16 feet) deep near the central railway station in western Thessaloniki during work to expand a gas station’s underground tanks. The existing tanks have been emptied, but previous attempts to remove the bomb were unsuccessful.

Deputy regional governor Voula Patoulidou told the Associated Press on Monday that military and police authorities will try to defuse the bomb on the spot.

The device, dropped during an air raid on the northern city in the 1940s, was unearthed in a densely populated area last week during works to expand fuel storage tanks.

Bomb disposal experts will attempt to tackle the device, found near a petrol station at a depth of 5.5m, on Sunday.

More than 300 disabled people and bed-bound patients were the first to move out on Saturday morning, at the start of what is being described as the biggest peacetime evacuation in Greece’s history.

The departure of all residents within a 1.9km radius of the bomb site, affecting three neighbourhoods in the west of the city centre, is due to be completed before 08:00 GMT on Sunday.

Refugees living in a nearby camp will also have to be evacuated, the migration ministry said, without specifying how many. 

‘Don’t know what we’ll find’

Evacuation is “obligatory”, regional security chief Apostolos Tzitzikostas told reporters on Friday.

The operation is unprecedented in Greece, “where a bomb of this size has never been found in an area this densely populated,” Tzitzikostas added.

Regional authorities said the entire operation would take up to eight hours, but local military spokesman Colonel Nikos Phanios was more cautious.

“We don’t know what we’re going to find,” he told the AFP news agency. Defusing the bomb and then moving it to a military shooting range “could take us up to two days”, he added.

Up to 1,000 police officers have been mobilised for the operation, with residents given several days’ warning via the media, leaflets and posts on social media.

Jumped into a ditch’

Colonel Nikos Fanios, an army spokesman, said the device’s exterior was too degraded to be able to determine whether it was a German or an Allied bomb.

But one resident said he remembered the day it fell.

“The bombing was done by English and American planes on September 17 1944. It was Sunday lunchtime,” Giorgos Gerasimou, 86, whose home is 800 meters from where the bomb was found, said.

“We could see the planes coming,” he told the Associated Press news agency.

They were targeting local German rail facilities, Gerasimou said. Nazi Germany occupied Greece from 1941 until October 1944.

A 13-year-old at the time, Gerasimou said he and his friends would go to the railway station each day for food rations.

“That day something told me I had to leave, and in the end we did,” he said. “When I heard the (air raid) sirens, I jumped into a ditch with my friends and we survived.”

Another one of his friends was not so lucky. Ten-year-old Panagiotis was killed in the air raid, Gerasimou said, clutching a photo of the boy that he has kept to this day.

During Sunday’s evacuation, residents will be transported by bus to schools, sports halls and cultural centres elsewhere in the city while the exclusion zone is cordoned off.

Thessaloniki residents were facing disruption on the bus and train networks, with facilities set up to host evacuees in need of shelter.

Σαν σήμερα, καταργείται το 1982 η σχολική ποδιά

Στις 6 Φεβρουαρίου του 1982 oταν με απόφαση του τότε Υπ. Παιδείας Λευτέρη Βερυβάκη, η ποδιά έπαψε να είναι υποχρεωτική στα σχολεία.

Οι απόφοιτοι του 1974 του Δημοτικού Σχολείου Λεονταρίου με τον δάσκαλό τους κ. Γεώργιο Παύλου, στην Ε΄ & Στ΄ τάξη. Βλ. leontari-thivon. 

Αριστ., βλ. 3o Δημοτικό Σχολείο Αλεξάνδρειας. Δεξ., βλ. united reporters.

Βλ. lolanaenaallo.

Μαθητές της Ιονίου Σχολής. Βλ. Ionios Club.


Το Γαλλικό Σχολείο στην Αλεξανδρούπολη (1924-25). Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.

Κάστρο Λήμνου, τάξη Δ’ Γυμνασίου. Βλ. lolanaenaallo.

Τελειόφοιτοι του οκταταξίου Γυμνασίου Πτολεμαίδας τον Ιούνιο του 1949. Βλ. O Kailariotis (Για να θυμούνται οι παλιοί και να μαθαίνουν οι νέοι).

Μαθητές και μαθήτριες του Δημοτικού Σχολείου Καρίτσας στη Λακωνία (1958). Βλ. Δημήτρη Κατσάμπη. 

Βλ. O Kailariotis (Για να θυμούνται οι παλιοί και να μαθαίνουν οι νέοι).

Αριστ., βλ. lolanaenaallo. Δεξ., μαθητές με τα πηλήκιά τους στην Αλεξανδρούπολη το 1958. Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.
Δημοτικό Σχολείο Λισβορίου. Βλ. dimotikolisvorioy.
Αριστερά, μαθήτριες του 7ου Γυμνασίου Αθηνών στην πλατεία Μεταξά, πρώην Αγίου Κωνσταντίνου και νυν Σωτήρη Πέτρουλα. Πίσω τους η Λένορμαν και το καφενείο του Μαμάη στην οδό Μύλων. Βασιλική και Νέλη, 1950. Βλ. akadimiaplatonos.

Δεξιά, μαθήτριες στον Πειραιά. Βλ. pireorama.

Στην πάνω φωτ., μαθήτριες κοπτικής (1945). Βλ. adrianou.

Βλ. akadimia platonos.

Γιορτή σε Δημοτικό Σχολείο το 1970. Βλ. lolanaenaallo.

Ιόνιος Σχολή. Βλ. Ionios Club.

Αγιασμός στην Ιόνιο Σχολή (1958). Βλ. Ionios Club.

Πάνω, Δημοτικό Σχολείο Λισβορίου. Βλ. dimotikolisvorioy. Κάτω, βλ. pisostapalia.
Αριστ., βλ. lolanaenaallo. Δεξ., μαθήτριες φωτογραφίζονται με τα εικονίσματα της εκκλησίας του Άη Γιώργη, έξω από την Χώρα Σαμοθράκης. Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.
Αριστ., 7ο Ενιαίο Λύκειο Πειραιά. Δεξ., 6τάξιο Γυμνάσιο Θηλέων, με καθηγητή τον κ. Χαραμή (6 Ιουνίου 1970).


Βλ. lolanaenaallo.

Γ τάξη 1977, Α’ Θηλέων, Καβάλα. Βλ. 30 Χρονια Kavala.
Αλεξανδρούπολη. Tελευταίες μέρες της Έκτης τάξης του 1ου Δημοτικού Σχολείου τον Ιούνιο του 1969. Οι μαθήτριες με τον δαασκαλό τους κ.Γαλετζά. Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.
Κυνόσαργες, IB’ Γυμνάσιο Θηλέων (1962-6). Φωτογραφικό αρχείο 36ου Λυκείου. Βλ. Κυνόσαργες (6o ΓΕΛ Αθήνας).


Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.

Κυνόσαργες, IB’ Γυμνάσιο Θηλέων (1962-6). Φωτογραφικό αρχείο 36ου Λυκείου. Βλ. Κυνόσαργες (6o ΓΕΛ Αθήνας).

Κυνόσαργες, IB’ Γυμνάσιο Θηλέων (1962-6). Φωτογραφικό αρχείο 36ου Λυκείου. Βλ. Κυνόσαργες (6o ΓΕΛ Αθήνας).

Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.

Αριστ., μαθήτριες του Γυμνασίου στο πάρκο Εγνατία της Αλεξανδρούπολης στις αρχές του ΄60. Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη. Δεξ. πάνω, αρχείο Ε. Α. Λιγνού, βλ. santorinibusiness. Δεξ. κάτω, χορωδία του Β΄Γυμνασίου Θηλέων Θεσσαλονίκης (2.4.1950). Βλ. 19gymthe’s blog.

Αριστ., βλ. lolanaenaallo. Δεξ., βλ. oitheitses.


Αριστ., ο μαθητής Ηλίας. Δεξ., 4o Δημοτικό Σχολείο Αλεξανδρούπολης, 1973. Η Ευγενούλα και ο Γιαννάκης Μπράμος με τον πατέρα τους. Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη

Βλ. 30 Χρονια Kavala.


Αλεξανδρούπολη, Γ1 Γυμνασίο Θηλέων (1978-79). Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.

Γυμνάσιο Θηλέων Αλεξανδρούπολης, τάξη του 1977. Βλ. Γραφική Παλιά Αλεξανδρούπολη.
Βλ. christinapoliti.

Αλίκη Βουγιουκλάκη, Δημήτρης Παπαμιχαήλ στην ταινία του Αλέκου Σακελλάριου Το Ξύλο Βγήκε Απ’ τον Παράδεισο (1959). 

Βλ. mysalonika.

Greeks arrived mid 7th century BC and found a charming spot the other side of Martigues at St. Blaise


Martigues (Occitan: Lo Martegue in classical norm, Lou Martegue in Mistralian norm) is a commune northwest of Marseille. It is part of the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region on the eastern end of the Canal de Caronte.


The Greeks arrived mid 7th century BC and found a charming spot the other side of Martigues at St. Blaise and is becoming the main town in the west of the Etang de Berre. This site stands on a hill top plateau, amoungst pine trees and is situated between two peaceful etangs. This idyllic site too had previously been occupied by Celts, but the Greeks ‘kind of took it over’ and it grew and grew, finally becoming a town encompassing 40 hectares. Stone to build the site was chiselled out from the rock along the coast and transported inland. Similarly was stone acquired to built the site of Marseille, 40 kms to the west. The ancient chisel marks are still evident on close inspection.

Greeks arrived further south, on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, form the two villages of Tamaris (-640 to -560) and the Arquet (-625 to -560) on two neighboring headlands. These two villages are home to only the space of a generation or two before being abandoned. The village of Tamaris also presents the remarkable character of being the oldest indigenous urban area of southern France.29. The period also saw the emergence of small villages on especially difficult summits of access such as the oppidum Escourillon or Mourre of Bœu.

After the coastal stations of Tamaris and Arquet, larger sites begin to appear. Hill St. pierre33 is occupied from 550 BC. J.-C.29. The site will gradually become the most important oppidum avatique and the main town in the west of the chain of Nerthe29. About 475 BC. AD, another major urban center avatique is taking place on the Island. These three centers are experiencing a continuous occupationfor several siècles29. Relations with Marseille are initially relatively peaceful.

Towards the end of the third century BC. AD, the Avatiques thus seem to be the first to have used indigenous writing grecque. However, with the capture of Phocaea by the Persians and the flight of its inhabitants to their colonial possessions, power Marseille has increased significantly. In fact, Marseille has a monopoly on amphora Provencal market. It seems that Marseille has sought to divide the Gauls. However, this does not exclude some direct interventions. In the fourth century BC. BC, the village of Arquet rebuilt close to important careers shaved. The most violent military crisis between Marseille and Avatiques date of -200 to -190 BC period. AD City Island is destroyed, but quickly reconstruite.

Graeco-Roman settlement in northeastern Spain, modern Ampurias

Emporion, Emporiae (Ampurias) (Greek: ᾽Εμπόριον, “port of trade”): Graeco-Roman settlement in northeastern Spain, modern Ampurias.

According to the Greek geographer Strabo of Amasia, the Palaiapolis of Emporion was founded by Greeks from Massilia (Geography, 3.4.8). It was not a completely new town: the Iberian tribe of the Indigetes was already living there. The two nations appear to have gone along well: the natives obtained precious goods from the east, while the Greeks gained a stopover port in their expanding network in the western part of the Mediterranean.


A Greek trading settlement inhabited by the Phokaians from Massalia, at the end of the Gulf of Rosas on the Costa Brava; it is 3 km from the village of La Escala and 40 km NE of Gerona. It is first mentioned in the Periplus of the Pseudo-Skylax and in Skymnos. Its location has been known from the time of the Renaissance since it gave its name to an entire district, the Ampurdan, was an episcopal see in the Middle Ages, and one of the counties of the Marca Hispanica.

The Greeks originally occupied the small islet of San Martin, now joined to the mainland, which was subsequently known as Palaiapolis (Strab. 3.4.8). They soon spread to the nearby coast and used the mouth of the Clodianus (Fluvia) as a trading port. The town was founded a little after 600 B.C. (date of the foundation of Massalia) and throughout the 6th c. was a mere trading settlement, a port of call on the trade route from Massalia (Marseille), two days’ and one night’s sail distant (Pseudo-Skylax 3), to Mainake and the other Phokaian foundations in S Iberia which traded with Tartessos. Because it was frankly a mart the Greek settlement grew rapidly, and probably received fugitives from the destruction of Phokaia by the Persians (540) and after the Battle of Alalia (537), also Greeks from Mainake and other cities in the S destroyed by the Carthaginians.

Greek vessel

In the 5th c. Massalia declined, and Emporion, which was already independent, became a polis ruled by magistrates; it developed a brisk trade with the Greek towns in S Italy, the Carthaginian towns, and the native settlements in the interior, on which it had a profound Hellenic influence. Emporion then minted its own coins, first imitating those of the towns with which it traded, including Athens and Syracuse, and later creating its own currency in fractions of the drachma. The types were copied from those of both Carthage and Syracuse, and the currency system continued to be separate from that of Massalia until Emporion was Romanized in the 2d c. The 5th-3d c. were those of its greatest wealth and splendor.

Business Letter (Greek inscription)  

Commercial letter, written in Greek on plated lead, in which a merchant from Ionia sends off several orders to his representative in Emporion. Fifth century BCE.

[‒ ‒ ‒]ν̣[‒ ‒ ‒]?

[‒ ‒ ‒][κελεύε̄] ο̣[κ]ω̣ς ἐν Σαιγάνθηι ἔσηι, κἂν [‒ ‒ ‒] 1

[‒ ‒ ‒] Ἐ̣μππορίταισιν οὐδ’ ἐπιβα̣[‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒]νε̣ς ἢ ἔ̣κοσι κοἶνος {καὶ οἶνος} οὐκ ελ̣σω̣[….]δ[‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒]ἐν Σαιγ]άνθηι ὀνωνῆσθαι Βασπεδ[…]π[λοῖον ‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒]αναρσαν παρακομίσε̄ν κἂς [..]ε[……]ο̣[‒ ‒ ‒] 5

[‒ ‒ ‒]λ..εωνι τί τούτων ποητέον [..]ν[‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒]τα καὶ κελεύε̄ σε Βασπεδ[..]εδ̣ε̣ι[‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒ ἔρε]σθαι ε̣ τίς ἐστιν ὂς ἔλξει ἐς δ[.]οστ. α[‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒ ἠ]μέτερον· κἂν δύο ὤισι, δύο προ̣[εσ]θ[ω ‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒]ἀ̣ρ[χ]ὸς δ’ ἔστω· κἂν αὐτὸς θέλ[ηι ‒ ‒ ‒] 10

[‒ ‒ ‒ τὤ]μ[υ]συ μετεχέτω· κἂμ μὴ ὀ[μο]ν̣[οηι ‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒]τ̣ω κἀπιστε̄λάτω ὀκόσο̄ ἂν[‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒]ν ὠς ἂν δύνηται τάχιστα[‒ ‒ ‒]

[‒ ‒ ‒κεκ]έλευκα· χαῖρε.

 1(δεῖ σε ἐπιμελε̄́σθαι)] ο̣[κ]ω̣ς: ὅπως / ὤς ZPE 72: ῳς … καν Slings: δεῖ σε επιμελέσθαι] ὄ[κ]ως ἐν Efenterre-Ruzé: <Ζ>α<κ>άθηι Musso: ὂ[κ]ως ZPE 68. 2 ἐ]ππορίταισιν (= μέτοικοι) / Ἐ]ππορίταισιν / ἀ]ππορίταισιν (= ἀμφορίτης) Musso: ἐπιβα̣[ίνηις ZPE 84: ἐπιβα̣[ίνε̅ν ZPE 72: ἐπιβα̣[ταισι ZPE 68 ZPE 72: ἐπιβα̣ Slings: ἐπιβά̣[ταισιν] Efenterre-Ruzé. 3 ἐ̣σ̣[…]δ[ Slings: πλέο]νε̣ς Efenterre-Ruzé: ἐλάσσο]νε̣ς ZPE 80: πλεο]νε̣ς … οὐκ ἐς θ̣…δ[…ZPE 72: ἐ̣λ̣ά̣[σσων ἤ]δ[έκα ZPE 80. 4 (φορτίον τό ἐν / φορτηγέσιον); Σαιγ]άνθηι ZPE 72: ]αν θήϊον ωνῆσθαι βὰς πέδ[ον καρ]π[ητανῶν Musso: [–Σαιγ]άνθηι ὀνῳνῆσθαι Slings: φορτίον τὸ ἐν Σαιγ]άνθηι ὄν Efenterre-Ruzé: Σαιγ]άνθηι ὂν ὠνῆσθαι (φορτίον τὸ ἐν) ZPE 68: Σαιγ]άνθηι ὂν, ὠνῆσθαι ZPE 72: Σαιγ]ανθηῖον ὠνῆσθαι ZPE 80. 5 ]αν ἄρσαν ZPE 72: ἄναρσαν ZPE 72: αν ἄρσαν παρακομί<ζ>εν κα[σσίτ]ερτον Musso: ]αναρσαν Slings: ἐς ]αν Ἄρσαν παρακομισεν κασ[ ]εν̣[ López García: [ἀκάτιον / πλοῖον …]αν ἄρσαν ZPE 80, ZPE 84, Slings, Musso. 6 α / δ … [ἠμῖ]ν… ZPE 72: ]α. ε̣ωνι… ποητέον [ἠμῖ]ν Efenterre-Ruzé: [ἠμι]ν̣[ ZPE 72. 7 ἔλκ̣[εν ZPE 72: καὶ κελεύε<ι> σι / καὶ κελεύ{ε}σε<ι> βὰς πεδ[ον] Ἐλι[βυργίων] Musso: σ̣α καὶ κελεύε σε Βασπεδ[..]ελ.[—] Slings: ἐρώ]τα καὶ κέλευε ZPE 72. 8 (εἴ / ἢ) ZPE 72: ]σ̣θαι· τις ἔστιν ὅς ἕλξει López García: ἔλξει ZPE 68 Slings: ἔλξε̄ι ZPE 72: [- ἔρε]σθαι .. τίς ZPE 144. 9 ]μέτερο ν· κἄν δύο ὦισι, δύο προ[..]θ[…]χ[—] Slings. 10 μ̣ (μ/λ).π(μ/γ)ος ZPE 72: ]…ος δ’ ἔστω… θέλη[ι..]θ̣α̣ι̣[—] Slings: ]μ. πος; ]λ̣[ ]ος Efenterre-Ruzé. 11 κἂμ μὴ ο.[.]μ[—] Slings: μὴ ὀ[μο]λ[όγηι] Efenterre-Ruzé: ὀ[μο]λ̣[όγηι ZPE 80. 12 κἀπιστε<ι>λάτω ὀκοσο<υ> ἄν [δοκῇ Musso: μενά]τω Efenterre-Ruzé: μεν]άτω ZPE 72. 14 ταῦτα κεκ]έλευκα DG.

Business Letter (Greek inscription) 

The town built temples, foremost among which was that dedicated to Asklepios, for which a magnificent statue of Pentelic marble was imported. Outside the town a native settlement developed, which soon became hellenized. It was called Indika (Steph. Byz.), an eponym of the tribe of the Indiketes. In the course of time the two towns merged, although each kept its own legal status; this explains why, in Latin, Emporion is referred to in the plural as Emporiae. In the 3d c. commercial interests arising from its contacts with the Greek cities in Italy made it an ally of Rome. After the first Punic war the Roman ambassadors visited the Iberian tribes supported by the Emporitani, and in 218 B.C. Cn. Scipio landed the first Roman army in Hispania to begin the counteroffensive against Hannibal in the second Punic war.


The war years were prosperous for the city’s trade, but when the Romans finally settled in Hispania, difficulties arose between the Greeks and the native population, which were accentuated during the revolt of 197 B.C. In Emporion itself the Greek and native communities kept a constant watch on each other through guards permanently stationed at the gate in the wall separating the twin towns (Livy 34.9). In 195 B.C. M. Porcius Cato established a military camp near the town, rapidly subdued the native tribes in the neighborhood, and initiated the Roman organization of the country. As the result of the transfer to Tarraco of the Roman administrative and political sector, Emporion was eclipsed and became a residential town of little importance. The silting-up of its port and the increase in the tonnage of Roman vessels hastened its decline. The town became a municipium and during the time of C. Caesar received a colony of Roman veterans.

Greek Terracota Museum of Prehistory of Valencia

The Roman town, which was surrounded by a wall, was ruined by the invasion of the Franks in 265 and Rhode became the economic center of the district. However, a few small Christian communities established themselves in Emporion and transformed the ruins of the town into a necropolis which extended beyond the walls. Mediaeval sources claim that St. Felix stayed in Emporion before his martyrdom in Gerona in the early 4th c.

Mosaic with Greek inscription


The site of Empuries in Catalonia contains the remains of an ancient Greco-Roman city and military camp and is one of the oldest of its kind found on the Iberian Peninsula.

The history of Empuries dates back to the early Iron Age, but the remains that can be seen today at the Empuries archaeological site are those of both a Greek trading port and a Roman military camp.

Founded in the sixth century BC by ancient Greek traders from Phocaea, Emporion – as it was originally known – was used by Greek merchants who utilised the advantageous location of its valuable natural harbour. The very name of the city implied its commercial purpose – empurion meaning ‘market’ in ancient Greek.

In 218 BC the Romans took control of Empuries in an attempt to block Carthaginian troops during the Second Punic War. By 195 BC a Roman military camp had been established and over the next century a Roman colony named Emporiae emerged at the site, lasting until the end of the third century AD. However, over time the city waned as the nearby centres of Barcino (Barcelona) and Tarraco (Tarragona) grew. The importance of Empuries dwindled and the city was largely abandoned at this time.

In the eighth century AD the Franks took control of the region, after defeating the Moors, and the area took on an administrative function – becoming capital of the Carolingian county of Empúries. This role remained until the eleventh century, when it was transferred to Castellon. From then on Empuries served as the home of small groups of local fisherman and was largely forgotten.

The enclosure of the Greek town has been completely excavated. To the S is a temple area (Asklepieion and temple of Serapis), a small agora, and a stoa dating from the Roman Republican period. It is surrounded by a cyclopean wall breached by a single gate, confirming Livy’s description. On top of the Greek town and further inland is a Roman town, ten times larger and surrounded by a wall built no earlier than the time of Augustus. Inside is a forum, completely leveled, on which stood small votive chapels. To the E, facing the sea, are two large Hellenistic houses with cryptoportici, which contained remains of wall paintings and geometric mosaics. Many architectural remains are in the Barcelona Archaeological Museum and in the museum on the site. Among the finds are a statue of Asklepios, a Greek original; the mosaic of Iphigeneia, an archaic architectural relief with representations of sphinxes; Greek pottery (archaic Rhodian, Cypriot, and Ionian; 6th-4th c. Attic, Italic, and Roman). Several cemeteries near the town have also been excavated.

Today, the archaeological site of Empuries is nestled between the coastal village of Sant Marti d’Empuries and l’Escala, on the Costa Brava. Remains at the site include the ruins of the Greek market and port, an ancient necropolis as well as the Roman-era walls, mosaics, amphitheatre and early Christian basilica.

The ruins illustrate the rich and diverse history of the city, from holy areas and temples to a statue honouring Jupiter. Many of the finds from Empuries can be seen in the small on-site museum, which contains replicas as well as original items. Artefacts from the site can also be found at the central museum in Barcelona.

The site’s location on the Balearic Sea boasts magnificent views, making it a perfect location to explore history in scenic surroundings.

Empuries is managed by the Museu d’Arqueologia de Catalunya, which looks after other historic sites nearby and on the peninsula.

Site Monuments

The Palaiapolis

The island on which the Palaiopolis was situated is now part of the mainland and is the site of the mediaeval village of Sant Martí d’Empúries. The former harbour has silted up as well. Hardly any excavation has been done here.

After the founding of the Neapolis, the old city seems to have functioned as an acropolis (fortress and temple). Strabo mentions a temple dedicated to Artemis at this site.

The Neapolis 

The Neapolis consisted of a walled precinct with an irregular ground plan of 200 by 130 m. The walls were built, and repeatedly modified in the period from the 5th to the 2nd century BC. To the west the wall separated the Neapolis from the Iberian town of Indika.

In the south-west part of the city were various temples, replacing an older one to Artemis, such as a temple to Asclepius, of whom a marble statue was found. In the south-east part was a temple to Zeus-Serapis. The majority of the excavated buildings belong to the Hellenistic period. In addition to houses, some of which are decorated with mosaics and wallpaintings, a number of public buildings have come to light, such as those in the agora and the harbour mole. In the Roman period, thermae and a palaeochristian basilica were built.
To the south and east of the new city was an area that served as a necropolis.

The Roman city

Of the Roman city only some 20% has been excavated thus far. It has the typical orthogonal layout of Roman military camps, with two principal roads meeting at the forum. The Roman city is considerably larger than the Greek one. During the Republican period a temple was built dedicated to the Capitoline Triad: Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. During the reign of the emperor Augustus a basilica and curia were added.

In the eastern part of the town a number of large houses have been excavated, with an inner courtyard, numerous annexes, floor mosaics, and paintings. In the 2nd century the town was surrounded by a wall without towers. An amphitheatre and palaestra were built outside the wall.
Ruins of Neapolis and Palaiapolis

Serapieion (Temple of Isis and Zeus Serapis)


Stoa (agora)

Greek mosaics

Apollonia (Gylakea), Albania of Great Greek colonization

Apolonia which lived for 11 centuries between 620 BC and 479 was a city-state that originated as a product of the process of “Great ‘Greek colonization” VIII-VI centuries BC, on the shores of Illyria, which were populated by the community of Taulantia tribal. Stefan Bizantini, one of ancient authors say that: ”it was the largest city and most important of the 30-to colonies that were established across the Mediterranean with the name of god Apollo”.


Apollonia was founded in 588 B.C. jointly by the Greek settlers from Corinth and Kerkyra (today Corfu), N.B. colonised by Corinthians in about 8th century B.C.1 The settlers were led by a man called Gylax and it was his name after which the city was given its first name was Gylakea in honor of its founder Gylak of Corinth. Later, the name was changed to honour the god Apollo. Thirty other cities in Macedonia, Thrace, Crete or Italia honoured the god in the similar way2. For a change, we also have Aπολλωνία κατ’ Επίδαμνον, i.e. Apollonia near Epidamnos – the city which was founded a bit earlier, in 627 B.C., also by the settlers from Corinth and Kerkyra. These days, the ruins of the city lie in Albania, close to Pojani village, 7 km from Fier.

The settlers founded the city in a very convenient location. Apollonia was built on a gentle hill over the Aoos River (Αώος), just a few kilometres from the sea. When it comes to the trade, the new Corinthian colony was perfectly located and, what is more, it was situated on very fertile soil, so it is not surprising that soon it became one of the richest harbours of the Adriatic Sea.

Drachm, Antalkes Anikatou (Magistrate), ANTALKHS 

It is mentioned by Strabo in his Geographica as “an exceedingly well-governed city”. Aristotle considered Apollonia an important example of an oligarchic system, as the descendants of the Greek colonists controlled the city and prevailed over a large serf population of mostly Illyrian origin. The city grew rich on the slave trade and local agriculture, as well as its large harbour, said to have been able to hold a hundred ships at a time. The city also benefited from the local supply of asphalt which was a valuable commodity in ancient times, for example for caulking ships. The remains of a late sixth-century temple, located just outside the city.

At the turn of the 4th and 3rd century B.C., the city was flourishing; ramparts were rebuilt and a new coin was being issued. In 282 B.C. Apollonia was seized by the king of Epirus – Pyrrhus. After his death, the city strengthened its relationships with Rome which stationed its permanent garrison here since 229 B.C.

Roman army stayed in the city until 168 B.C. Roman proconsul Gnaeus Egnatius began the construction of a road which inherited its name after its designer, i.e. Via Egnatia (Ἐγνατία Ὁδός) in n 146 B. It led from Dyrrachium through Thessaloniki up to Bizancjum, 746 Roman miles3 in total, i.e. about 1103 km. Apollonia had become the second, after Dyrrachium, western end of this road, which had an impact on the city’s growing importance.

Kapital of Monument of Agonothetes

Regrettably, at the beginning of the 3rd century, Apollonia was largely destroyed by a strong earthquake. What is more, due to this earthquake, the bed of the Aoos River (now Vjosës) moved away from the city and the crop fields turned into marsh. The total destruction of the city was sealed by the invasions of people from the north. In the end, the city of Apollonia perished.


Apollonia represents one of the most important cities of the Mediterranean world and Adriatic basin, preserved in an exceptionally intact condition. Numerous monuments inside its original borders comprise an outstanding evidence of Greco – Roman culture of the city. Strabo has noted that the city was founded by Greek colonists from Corfu and Corinth, who found in its territory an earlier local settlement with its own unique cultural elements. The presence of this local culture is determined by the discovery of archeological artifacts from the Iron Age, tracts from an existing archaic fortification, the temple of Artemis as well as the tumular necropolis near the territory of the ancient city of Apollonia. The coexistence between two different cultures and their inevitable fusion produced a unique physiognomy of apollonian culture, which turned Apollonia to one of the most important economic centers of ancient Mediterranean world. The urban structure of the city lay on the hilly plateau, with an expanded view towards the fertile plain of Musacchia and the Adriatic Sea. The communication with the coast was enabled by the Aoos River, which flowed nearby. Inside its original borders in the 4th century BC Apollonia raised into one of the most important economic, political and cultural centers beside Epidamnos – Dyrrachion.

Temenos, or sacred area of the city, has been organized around the Temple of Apollo. In this part of the city, was build a number of monuments dating in the same period (6th century BC) with the temple of Apollo. There are preserved traces of a Doric temple with a east – west orientation, storehouses and cisterns (3d century B.C.), two small sanctuaries, noted by archaeologist as A and B (1st century BC).

Agora or social space was extended in the area between two hilltops, including the most important monuments discovered in the territory of Apollonia, consisting in different building phases.

Their study has contributed to the creation of a complete panorama on the development of the city.

During 4th and 3d centuries BC were added the retaining wallsofthe sacred area of Temenos, two Stoas (walkways or porticos), a Greek theater and a Nymphaeum (a monument consecrated to nymphs). During the Roman period, these area was increased with other social buildings like the Buleterion (the seat of the city council) an imitation of the Roman temple architecture; the Odeon, a combination of Greek and Roman construction techniques; the Library; the Arch of Triumph; the Temple of Diana and Prytaneion (the seat of government). Besides these specific monuments, archaeological excavations in the residential area have discovered a number of buildings from Hellenistic and Roman periods paved with well-preserved mosaics. 

Different factors, as the earthquake of the year 234 AD which changed the riverbed of Aoos, the failure of the existent social structure and the gothic invasions caused the gradual decline and the loss of the status of Apollonia as a “port city”. The documentary sources of the 4th century AD refer to Apollonia as an important Episcopal residence, which during the 5th century AD was transferred in the neighboring city of Byllis. The successive period of its history remains unknown due to the restricted documentary data. The monastery complex comprises a unique testimony of the later history of the city. Although the preserved structure of the katholikon has been dated in the 13th century AD, different studies on the subject have argued that it belongs to an earlier date, maybe of 9th century AD. The medieval monastery at Apollonia preserves several structures belonging to different building periods. In addition to the katholikon dedicated to the Virgin (?) or to the Koimesis (?) (Dormition of the Virgin) with its lateral chapel of St. Demetrius, the complex includes the lower portion of a tower, the refectory (trapeza), and, evidently, portions of a building housing the original living quarters for the monks.

The katholikon of St. Mary dates in the second half of the thirteenth century, and possibly to the reign of Michael VIII Palaiologos, which issued a chrysobull granting the reconfirmation of privileges for the monastery. It belongs to the group of the churches of cross-in-square plan and the links with Constantinopolitan architecture have long been claimed on the basis of its structural system. Despite its irregularities, the whole arrangement of the church planning is simple and clear, with a domed nave, a narthex and an exonarthex. The handling of the walls is simple, but the external appearance is emphasized by the colonnade along the exonarthex which is crowned by capitals with a diversity of sculptural decorations (sirens, animals, and monsters), distinctly Romanesque in character and reminiscent to Romano gothic art which flourished in Ragusa and Tivar during the thirteenth to fourteenth centuries. From the painting program of the katholikon may be distinguished the fresco depicting several members of the Byzantine imperial family of the Palaiologi on the east wall of the exonarthex and the Deposition or the Archangel Gabriel portrait in the eastern part of the nave of the church.

The refectory stands in the western part of the monastery with a Nord – South orientation. It is triconch architecture, with its eastern, southern and western walls terminating with apses. The southern apse is rectangle and amplified during the restoration works of the year 1962, while the others trilateral. The interior of the building was decorated with fresco painting, very interesting in point of view of the organization the iconographic cycle and its artistic and technical qualities. It belongs to the roman – byzantine group of paintings, from which very few examples survive. The partially preserved cycle of frescoes reveals scenes like the Wedding at Cana, Washing of the Feet, Deisis, Prophet Elijah in the Cave, figures of apostles and prophets and scenes from the Cycle of Miracles of Christ. The realistic rendering of the landscapes is reminiscent of the painting of the Italian Renaissance. However, the execution may be considered a work of an anonymous artist native to the general area.

The mingling of eastern and western building traditions in the Monastery of St. Mary is not an uncommon phenomenon in the Balkan area, a long-disputed border between the eastern and western spheres of influence. This rivalry between the two spheres, for all its negative side effects on the political and religious life in this area, has also colored the Balkan cultures with their unique individualism.
Site Monuments

Ruins of the Town

Temple ruins (Monument of Agonothetes)

Odeon Theater of Apollonia


Church of Saint Mary

ΞΕΜΑΤΙΑΣΜΑ: Τι λέει η Εκκλησία-Προσευχή



Το μάτιασμα (η βασκανία) είναι ένα φαινόμενο που η Εκκλησία μας πα­ραδέχεται την ύπαρξη του.

Κανείς δε μπορεί να ξεχάσει την αείμνηστη Γεωργία Βασιλειάδου στην ταινία η κυρά μας η μαμή, που ήταν εξειδικευμένη… στο ξεμάτιασμα. «Στα όρη στα άγρια βουνά. Στα ξύλα στα λαγκάδια…» έλεγε η γνωστή ηθοποιός και όλοι γίνονταν αυτομάτως καλά. Τι είναι, όμως, το μάτιασμα και πώς γλιτώνουμε από αυτό;

Πρόκειται για την περίπτωση που κάποιος με φθόνο, με μίσος, για εκδίκηση, θέλει το κακό ενός προσώπου κι έτσι πα­ρακινεί το διάβολο να βλάψει τούτο το πρόσωπο. Το ίδιο αποτέλεσμα συμβαίνει κι όταν κανείς με λόγια στείλει κάποιον στον διάβολο, όπως διαβάζουμε στο ΒΗΜΑ ΟΡΘΟΔΟΞΙΑΣ.

Κι εδώ όμως συμβαίνει κάτι παρό­μοιο με όσους τυραννιούνται από προ­λήψεις και τρέχουν στους διάφορους μάγους και αγύρτες. Ο άνθρωπος δεν μπορεί να ανεχτεί τον πόνο και θέλει γρήγορα να απαλλαγεί απ’ αυ­τόν. Παράλληλα έχει την εντύπωση ότι για ό,τι κακό του συμβαίνει δεν φταίει αυτός αλλά κάποιοι άλλοι. Δεν θέλει δηλαδή να αναλάβει τις ευ­θύνες του για τίποτα, π.χ. Δεν πήγε καλά το συνοικέσιο; Του έκαναν μά­για! Δεν πήγε καλά η δουλειά; Τον γλωσσόφαγαν! Έχει πονοκέφαλο; Τον μάτιασαν κ.ο.κ.

Ποια θέση όμως παίρνει η Εκκλη­σία μας για το ξεμάτιασμα;

Κατ’ αρχήν τους πιστούς που ζουν τακτική πνευματική και μυ­στηριακή ζωή και που με πίστη φέρουν τον Τίμιο Σταυρό, δεν τους πιάνει κανένα «μάτι».

Όταν υπάρξει βασκανία, τότε μο­ναδική ισχυρή δύναμη κατά της δαιμονικής ενέργειας είναι οιει­δικές ευχές του ιερέα, η ειλικρι­νής Εξομολόγηση και η Θεία Με­τάληψη.

Ακόμη βοηθούν μαζί με τη δύνα­μη της προσευχής και τα αγιαστικά μέσα που η ίδια η Εκκλησία μας χορηγεί.

Σε καμία περίπτωση δεν πρέπει να καταφεύγουμε στις ξεματιάστρες, οι οποίες με παράξενες και πολ­λές φορές με βλάσφημες ευχές ή «προσευχές», επιχειρούν να υπο­καταστήσουν τον ιερέα.

Κάποια τυχόν βελτίωση από ένα τέτοιο ξεμάτιασμα είναι βέβαιο τέχνα­σμα του διαβόλου, ο οποίος αποσκο­πεί να μας τραβήξει μακριά από τη σωτήρια χάρη της Εκκλησίας μας και να μας δέσει ως δούλους πίσω από μία πλανεμένη ξεματιάστρα.

Η προσευχή

Εις το όνομα του Πατρός και του Υιού και του Αγίου Πνεύματος. Αμήν.

Δόξα σοι ο Θεός ημών, δόξα σοι. Βασιλεύ ουράνιε, παράκλητε, το Πνεύμα της αληθείας, ο πανταχού παρών και τα πάντα πληρών, ο θησαυρός των αγαθών και ζωής χορηγός, ελθέ και σκήνωσον εν ημίν, και καθάρισον ημάς από πάσης κηλίδος, και σώσον, Αγαθέ, τας ψυχάς ημών.

Δόξα Πατρί, και Υιώ και αγίω Πνεύματι. Καί νυν και αεί και εις τους αιώνας των αιώνων. Αμήν.

Παναγία Τριάς, ελέησον ημάς, Κύριε, ιλάσθητι ταίς αμαρτίαις ημών. Δέσποτα, συγχώρησον τας ανομίας ημίν. Άγιε, επισκεψαι και ίασαι τας ασθενείας ημών, ένεκεν του ονόματός σου, Κύριε ελέησον, Κύριε ελέησον, Κύριε ελέησον.

Δόξα Πατρί, και Υιώ και αγίω Πνεύματι. Καί νυν και αεί και εις τους αιώνας των αιώνων. Αμήν.

Πάτερ ημών ο εν τοις ουρανοίς, αγιασθήτω το όνομά σου, έλθετω η βασιλεία σου, γενηθήτω το θέλημά σου, ως εν ουρανώ και επί της γης. Τον άρτον ημών τον επιούσιον δος ημίν σήμερον, και άφες ημίν τα οφειλήματα ημών ως και ημείς αφίεμεν τοις οφειλέταις ημών, και μη εισενέγκης ημάς εις πειρασμόν, αλλά ρύσαι ημάς από του πονηρού.

Δι’ ευχών των άγιων Πατέρων ημών, Κύριε Ιησού Χριστέ ο Θεός ημών, ελέησον ημάς. Αμήν.

Source: http://agios-nektarios.net/

Founded as a Greek colony in Roses (Rodi), Spain

History stops again and again at Roses. Founded as a Greek colony, its location makes it a strategic point in the Mediterranean. For this reason, the site has experienced various occupations and has been a target of numerous attacks. 

Today, the Ciutadella is a modern cultural centre and an extraordinary site.

Brought together over an area of 139,000 m2 are the archaeological remains of the Greek colony and later Roman colony of Rhode, the Romanesque monastery of Santa Maria and the structure of the old village of Roses, which even retains some medieval fortifications.


The origins of Roses (Greek: Rhode) are disputed. A popular theory holds it was founded in the 8th century BC by Greek colonists from Rhodes. 

It seems more probable that it was founded in the 5th century BC by Greeks from Massalia (Marseilles), perhaps with an admixture of colonists from neighbouring Emporion (today’s Empúries). 

Remains of the Greek settlement can still be seen. Remains from the Roman period go back to the 2nd century BC and continue well into Christian times with a paleochristian church and necropolis. After the collapse of Roman power the town seems to have been abandoned, but a fortified settlement from the Visigothic period has been excavated on the nearby Puig Rom.

Rhoda coins, 5th-1st century BCE.

The mediaeval town grew around the monastery of Santa Maria de Roses (mentioned since 944). Its jurisdiction was shared by the abbots of Santa Maria de Roses and the counts of Empúries. In 1402 the county of Empúries was incorporated into the Crown of Aragon and Roses acquired the right to organize its own municipal government and economy.

In the first decades of the 16th century Roses suffered repeated attacks by privateers from North Africa. To counter the threat, Charles V ordered the construction of extensive fortifications in 1543. In spite of the precautions, a naval squadron led by the Turkish admiral Barbarossa attacked and plundered the town some months later. After substantial revisions, the fortifications were completed in 1553, under Charles’s son Philip II. The entire medieval town was enclosed by a bastioned pentagonal wall (illustration, below). The defensive system was supplemented by the Castell de la Trinitat, some 2.5 km to the east. The town received a permanent military garrison, which profoundly changed its character. To minimise friction between the citizenry and the soldiers, barracks were constructed, but did not prevent the gradual movement of part of the population to outside the walls, where the modern town of Roses now is.

In the following centuries the fortifications were severely tested. In 1645, during the Catalan Revolt, French troops besieged Roses and captured it. The Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) restored the town to Spain.

In 1693, during the War of the Grand Alliance the French captured the town again. This time the French occupation lasted until the Peace of Ryswick in 1697. In 1712, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Austrian troops tried to take the city, but were driven off. In 1719, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance, the French again attacked, but failed to take Roses.

After a long period of relative calm the Wars of the French Revolution ushered in a new round of hostilities. In 1793 the French revolutionary government declared war on Spain. At first, the Spanish armies won a foothold in France, but in 1794 the revolutionary armies invaded Catalonia. The Siege of Roses lasted from 28 November 1794 until 3 February 1795, when the garrison was safely evacuated by a Spanish naval squadron, except for 300 soldiers. The town was surrendered to France, but the war between France and Spain ended at the Peace of Basle signed in July 1795. The city quickly returned to Spanish control.

In 1808, Emperor Napoleon I of France forced King Charles IV of Spain and his son Ferdinand to abdicate and installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte on the throne. When the Spanish people revolted against this high-handed behavior, French armies again invaded the country in the Peninsular War. The fourth and last Siege of Roses occurred in 1808. During the operation, the Scottish Royal Navy captain, Thomas Cochrane assisted the Spanish by putting his men into Castell de la Trinitat to help defend the town. The Scot stayed until the citadel and the town surrendered, before evacuating himself and his men. In 1814, when the defeated French withdrew from Spain, they blew up the town’s fortifications along with the Castell de la Trinitat. At this time, the ancient town, called the Ciutadella, was completely ruined. Meanwhile, to the east the modern town slowly continued to grow.

In 1879 Roses suffered a devastating economic crisis through phylloxera, a pest of the grapevines, that destroyed the town’s wine growing industry. Some of the population moved to Barcelona or emigrated to the United States.

In the 20th century, notably in the period after World War II, Roses has profited from the growth of tourism.

Over the last decades important excavations have been carried out inside the walls of the Ciutadella concerning not only the Greek and Roman remains, but part of the medieval city and its walls. In the 1990s extensive restoration work was carried out on the walls of the Ciutadella, and in 2004 a museum was opened inside it. A controversial restoration of the Castell de Trinitat was formally completed in 2010.

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