The World’s Biggest Public Companies

Source: Forbes

Rank Company Country Sales Profits Assets Market Value
1

Exxon Mobil

United States $433.5 B $41.1 B $331.1 B $407.4 B
2

JPMorgan Chase

United States $110.8 B $19 B $2,265.8 B $170.1 B
3

General Electric

United States $147.3 B $14.2 B $717.2 B $213.7 B
4

Royal Dutch Shell

Netherlands $470.2 B $30.9 B $340.5 B $227.6 B
5

ICBC

China $82.6 B $25.1 B $2,039.1 B $237.4 B
6

HSBC Holdings

United Kingdom $102 B $16.2 B $2,550 B $164.3 B
7

PetroChina

China $310.1 B $20.6 B $304.7 B $294.7 B
8

Berkshire Hathaway

United States $143.7 B $10.3 B $392.6 B $202.2 B
9

Wells Fargo

United States $87.6 B $15.9 B $1,313.9 B $178.7 B
10

Petrobras-Petróleo Brasil

Brazil $145.9 B $20.1 B $319.4 B $180 B
11

BP

United Kingdom $375.5 B $25.7 B $292.5 B $147.4 B
12

Chevron

United States $236.3 B $26.9 B $209.5 B $218 B
13

China Construction Bank

China $68.7 B $20.5 B $1,637.8 B $201.9 B
14

Citigroup

United States $102.6 B $11.1 B $1,873.9 B $107.5 B
15

Gazprom

Russia $117.6 B $31.7 B $302.6 B $159.8 B
16

Wal-Mart Stores

United States $447 B $15.7 B $193.4 B $208.4 B
17

Volkswagen Group

Germany $221.9 B $21.5 B $328.7 B $79.5 B
18

Total

France $216.2 B $15.9 B $213 B $132.4 B
19

Agricultural Bank of China

China $62.4 B $14.4 B $1,563.9 B $154.8 B
20

BNP Paribas

France $119 B $7.9 B $2,539.1 B $61.5 B
21

Bank of China

China $60.8 B $15.8 B $1,583.7 B $129.1 B
22

Apple

United States $127.8 B $33 B $138.7 B $546 B
23

Banco Santander

Spain $109.6 B $6.9 B $1,624.7 B $75.6 B
24

Sinopec-China Petroleum

China $391.4 B $11.6 B $179.8 B $104.2 B
25

Toyota Motor

Japan $228.5 B $4.9 B $358.3 B $147.9 B
26

Samsung Electronics

South Korea $142.4 B $11.5 B $133.7 B $162 B
27

ConocoPhillips

United States $230.9 B $12.4 B $153.2 B $98.8 B
28

Vodafone

United Kingdom $73.5 B $12.8 B $239.2 B $131.2 B
29

ENI

Italy $143.2 B $8.9 B $178.7 B $97.6 B
30

Itaú Unibanco Holding

Brazil $75.5 B $7.4 B $426.4 B $91.2 B
31

China Mobile

Hong Kong-China $81.7 B $19.5 B $151.2 B $216.5 B
32

IBM

United States $106.9 B $15.9 B $116.4 B $238.7 B
33

AT&T

United States $126.7 B $3.9 B $270.3 B $187.3 B
34

Pfizer

United States $67.4 B $10 B $188 B $165.4 B
35

Procter & Gamble

United States $85.1 B $10.1 B $134.3 B $185.2 B
36

Mitsubishi UFJ Financial

Japan $53.3 B $7 B $2,478.8 B $74.5 B
37

Daimler

Germany $138 B $7.3 B $188.7 B $66.3 B
38

American Intl Group

United States $64.2 B $17.8 B $555.8 B $50.3 B
39

ING Group

Netherlands $139 B $7.5 B $1,653 B $35.8 B
40

Nestlé

Switzerland $89.2 B $10.1 B $119.4 B $205.4 B
41

Statoil

Norway $111.6 B $13.1 B $127.8 B $89 B
42

Microsoft

United States $72.1 B $23.5 B $112.2 B $273.5 B
43

Banco Bradesco

Brazil $79.8 B $5.9 B $397.1 B $65.3 B
44

Ford Motor

United States $136.3 B $20.2 B $178.3 B $47.5 B
45

Nippon Telegraph & Tel

Japan $124 B $6.1 B $226.6 B $60.8 B
45

AXA Group

France $132.8 B $5.6 B $947.8 B $40.6 B
47

Commonwealth Bank

Australia $49.5 B $6.9 B $713.7 B $81.6 B
47

GDF Suez

France $117.5 B $5.2 B $275.2 B $58.3 B
49

BHP Billiton

Australia $71.7 B $23.6 B $102.9 B $187.5 B
50

Allianz

Germany $134.4 B $3.3 B $832.8 B $56.3 B
50

Siemens

Germany $98.4 B $8.2 B $135.6 B $92 B
52

Deutsche Bank

Germany $65.7 B $5.4 B $2,809.4 B $47.3 B
53

Barclays

United Kingdom $66.3 B $4.7 B $2,425.2 B $49.1 B
54

Banco do Brasil

Brazil $72.4 B $6.5 B $516.3 B $45.9 B
55

MetLife

United States $70.3 B $7 B $799.6 B $40.7 B
56

Vale

Brazil $55.4 B $20.3 B $127.6 B $126.8 B
57

Telefónica

Spain $81.4 B $7 B $159.9 B $75.6 B
57

Johnson & Johnson

United States $65 B $9.7 B $113.6 B $178.8 B
59

Westpac Banking Group

Australia $44.1 B $7.2 B $651.7 B $67.5 B
59

Honda Motor

Japan $107.5 B $6.4 B $137.7 B $70.8 B
61

BMW Group

Germany $95.8 B $6.8 B $160 B $61.2 B
62

Novartis

Switzerland $58.6 B $9.1 B $117.5 B $150.4 B
63

General Motors

United States $150.3 B $9.2 B $144.6 B $40 B
64

Sumitomo Mitsui Financial

Japan $45.9 B $5.7 B $1,654.9 B $47.8 B
65

China Life Insurance

China $56 B $5.1 B $214.1 B $76.5 B
66

Verizon Communications

United States $110.9 B $2.4 B $230.5 B $112.2 B
67

Hewlett-Packard

United States $125 B $5.9 B $126.6 B $48.4 B
68

Lukoil

Russia $111.4 B $10.4 B $90.6 B $55.3 B
69

Rio Tinto

United Kingdom $60.5 B $5.8 B $119.5 B $110.2 B
70

Royal Bank of Canada

Canada $35.9 B $4.7 B $812.7 B $84.4 B
71

Rosneft

Russia $59.2 B $11.3 B $106 B $79.6 B
71

UBS

Switzerland $43.7 B $4.5 B $1,508.7 B $54.2 B
73

EDF

France $84.6 B $3.9 B $297.5 B $45.7 B
74

BASF

Germany $95.2 B $8 B $78.7 B $82.2 B
75

ENEL

Italy $103.2 B $5.4 B $220.4 B $35.4 B
76

National Australia Bank

Australia $38.2 B $5 B $730.4 B $56.3 B
77

Goldman Sachs Group

United States $36.8 B $4.4 B $923.2 B $63.5 B
78

Sanofi

France $43.2 B $7.4 B $125.3 B $103.3 B
79

ANZ

Australia $34.7 B $5.2 B $577.2 B $62.6 B
80

Merck & Co

United States $48 B $6.3 B $105.1 B $115.8 B
81

Comcast

United States $55.8 B $4.2 B $157.8 B $79.8 B
82

TD Bank

Canada $27.7 B $5.8 B $771.5 B $76.1 B
83

Bank of America

United States $115.1 B $1.4 B $2,129 B $105.2 B
83

BBVA-Banco Bilbao Vizcaya

Spain $46.7 B $3.9 B $767.7 B $43.1 B
85

Nissan Motor

Japan $105.5 B $3.8 B $128.7 B $48.1 B
85

Intel

United States $54 B $12.9 B $71.1 B $138.5 B
87

Coca-Cola

United States $46.5 B $8.6 B $80 B $158.8 B
88

PepsiCo

United States $66.5 B $6.4 B $72.9 B $101.3 B
88

Saudi Basic Industries

Saudi Arabia $50.6 B $7.8 B $88.6 B $84.4 B
90

Sberbank

Russia $31.8 B $6 B $282.4 B $74 B
91

Cisco Systems

United States $44.8 B $7 B $89.3 B $107.9 B
92

Bank of Nova Scotia

Canada $27.3 B $5.3 B $635.2 B $62.2 B
93

Anheuser-Busch InBev

Belgium $39 B $5.9 B $112.4 B $115.3 B
94

Société Générale

France $98.6 B $3.3 B $1,531.1 B $25.8 B
95

Mitsubishi Corp

Japan $62.6 B $5.6 B $136.6 B $39.7 B
96

Hyundai Motor

South Korea $70.3 B $6.9 B $94.5 B $43.6 B
97

Zurich Financial Services

Switzerland $53 B $3.5 B $365.6 B $39 B
98

Mizuho Financial

Japan $32.2 B $5 B $1,934.4 B $40.6 B
99

Glencore International

Switzerland $179.6 B $3.9 B $85.2 B $45.9 B
100

Ping An Insurance Group

China $42.2 B $3 B $362.8 B $55 B

The World’s Youngest Billionaires: 29 Under 40

Source: Forbes

There are 1,426 billionaires in the world this year. They are the wealthiest of the wealthy. But only 29 members of this elite list are under 40 years old, with that exciting combination of money and youth.

Those 29 have a total of $119 billion between them. Ten come from the technology sector, including four from social networking giant Facebook. Eleven come from the United States, the rest from countries abroad. Five are newcomers to the billionaire ranks. Read the full list below.

These 29 billionaires are all under 40 years old.

No. 1: Dustin Moskovitz
Age: 28
Net Worth: $3.8 billion
Moskovitz, Mark Zuckerberg‘s former roommate, no longer works at Facebook, the social networking giant that he co-founded. A signee of Bill Gates‘ and Warren Buffett’s Giving Pledge, Moskovitz bikes to work, flies commercial, and pitches his own tent at Burning Man.

No. 2: Mark Zuckerberg
Age: 28
Net Worth: $13.3 billion
Few CEOs of any age are under more media scrutiny than Zuckerberg (who’s only 8 days older than Moskovitz). Since taking Facebook public in May 2012, and getting married days later, the hoodie-wearing founder has seen his net worth rise and fall with every fluctuation of the stock price.

No. 3: Albert von Thurn und Taxis
Age: 29
Net Worth: $1.5 billion
Albert von Thurn und Taxis first appeared in Forbes’ billionaire rankings at age 8 but officially inherited his fortune in 2001 on his 18th birthday. The eligible bachelor is also a race car driver and tours with a German auto-racing league.

No. 4: Scott Duncan
Age: 30
Net Worth: $5.1 billion
Duncan is the youngest of the four children who inherited the massive fortune of late energy pipeline entrepreneur Dan Duncan, founder of Enterprise Products Partners. Today the company owns more than 50,000 miles of natural gas, oil, and petrochemical pipelines.

No. 5: Eduardo Saverin
Age: 30
Net Worth: $2.2 billion
Facebook co-founder Saverin renounced his United States citizenship in 2011, news of which broke days before the company’s IPO and drew accusations of tax evasion. Saverin, immortalized in The Social Network as Mark Zuckerberg’s onetime best friend, settled a lengthy legal battle with Facebook, apparently receiving a 5% stake. A Brazilian citizen, he now resides in Singapore and invests in startups.

No. 6: Huiyan Yang
Age: 31
Net Worth: $5.7 billion
Yang, the daughter of the founder of real estate developer Country Garden Holdings, is once again China’s richest woman. Her father transferred his stake to the Ohio State grad before the company’s IPO in 2007.

No. 7: Fahd Hariri
Age: 32
Net Worth: $1.35 billion
Hariri is the youngest son of slain Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. He graduated from the Ecole Spéciale d’Architecture de Paris in 2004. While still a student, he ran an interior design studio on the outskirts of the city, and sold furniture to clients in Saudi Arabia.

No. 8: Marie Besnier Beauvalot
Age: 32
Net Worth: $1.5 billion
Marie, along with siblings Emmanuel, 42, and Jean-Michel, 45, inherited French dairy giant Lactalis, producers of popular Président brie among hundreds of other cheese, milk and yogurt brands.

No. 9: Sean Parker
Age: 33
Net Worth: $2 billion
Parker is revamping his much hyped start-up, Airtime, with the hopes that the video chat site will have the impact of his other Web companies. At 19, Parker skipped college to disrupt the recording industry with music swapping site Napster. He served as Facebook’s first president at age 24.

No. 10: Ayman Hariri
Age: 34
Net Worth: $1.35 billion
Hariri is the son of slain Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. He’s involved in running Saudi Oger, one of Saudi Arabia’s biggest construction companies, and the source of the Hariri family fortune.

No. 11: Yvonne Bauer
Age: 35
Net Worth: $2.4 billion
Bauer owns 85% of her family’s publishing empire. She is the fifth generation of the family to run the Bauer Media Group, which was founded in 1875. It publishes 570 magazines in 16 countries.

No. 12: Yoshikazu Tanaka
Age: 36
Net Worth: $1.8 billion
Founder and CEO of social-network game site operator Gree, Tanaka has faced stiff competition this year from archrival DeNA and a game initiative by NTT DoCoMo, the giant cellphone carrier. To get back on track, Tanaka moved to partner with Yahoo Japan and went on a buying spree.

No. 13: Maxim Nogotkov
Age: 36
Net Worth: $1.3 billion
Nogotkov got his start selling computer programs while in school and later began selling cordless phones. He dropped out of college in order to have more time to focus on building his business. He later founded cell phone retailer Svyaznoy.

No. 14: Alejandro Santo Domingo Davila
Age: 36
Net Worth: $11.7 billion
A Harvard history grad, Domingo Davila is the eldest son from his jet-setting beer magnate father’s second marriage. Now a managing director at a New York-based investment advisory firm, Alejandro sits on the board of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

No. 15: Jack Dorsey
Age: 36
Net Worth: $1.1 billion
Dorsey made a name for himself as a cofounder and leader of 140-character microblogging company Twitter, but most of his fortune is derived from his stake in mobile payment company Square. The New York University dropout is a certified masseur known for his eclectic interests, which include, among other things, punk music and clothes.

No. 16: Serra Sabanci
Age: 37
Net Worth: $1.3 billion
Sabanci is the daughter of Ozdemir Sabanci who was assassinated in 1996, and a board member of the large conglomerate Sabanci Holding.

No. 17: Nicholas Woodman
Age: 37
Net Worth: $1.3 billion
GoPro founder and CEO Nick Woodman built the first camera prototypes in his bedroom with his mom’s sewing machine and a drill. GoPro came out with its first camera, a 35-millimeter waterproof film version, in 2004. Today, the camera shoots full video in cinema quality HD, allowing anyone from professional surfer Kelly Slater to amateur snowboarders to capture their adventures.

No. 18: Chase Coleman
Age: 37
Net Worth: $1.4 billion
The hottest young money manager on the planet, Coleman cooled off a touch in 2012, but his Tiger Global hedge fund extended its impressive winning streak, finishing a third straight year with a net return in excess of 20%.

No. 19: Ryan Kavanaugh
Age: 38
Net Worth: $1 billion
Ryan Kavanaugh joins the billionaire ranks for the first time this year thanks to his movie studio, Relativity. Kavanaugh is making money by hitting singles and doubles like the recent Safe Haven, which cost $25 million to make and has grossed more than $50 million at the box office.

No. 20: Andrey Verevskiy
Age: 38
Net Worth: $1 billion
Verevskiy started trading in grain when he was 19 and founded Kernel Holding a decade later, growing it into Ukraine’s largest sunflower oil producer. Last year, Verevskiy was elected to Ukraine’s Parliament.

No. 21: John Arnold
Age: 38
Net Worth: $2.8 billion
Arnold shocked the hedge fund world in May 2012 when he announced he was calling it a career at age 38. Arnold and his wife Laura, who are signatories of the Giving Pledge, plan to devote much of their time to philanthropy. The couple have already given away more than $1.2 billion.

No. 22: Gary Fegel
Age: 39
Net Worth: $1 billion
Gary Fegel attained billionaire status in May 2011 in the wake of Glencore’s IPO. After earning his MBA from the University of St. Gallen, Fegel joined the alumina and aluminum department at the commodities titan in 2001.

No. 23: Kostyantin Zhevago
Age: 39
Net Worth: $1.5 billion
Son of a mining engineer, Kostyantin Zhevago took over Poltava Iron Ore, the largest exporter of pellets in CIS, at the age of twenty two, and in 2007 he took his mining company Ferrexpo public. An avid soccer fan, Zhevago owns FC Vorska football.

No 24: Dan Gertler
Age: 39
Net Worth: $2.2 billion
An emerging face of irresponsible capitalism in Africa, Dan Gertler took his family’s fortune in diamonds and invested it in mining assets in the Democratic Republic of Congo. While in his 20s, he became a friend of Joseph Kabila, who then ran the military and is now the DRC’s president.

No. 25: Ana Luia de Mattos Barretto Villela
Age: 39
Net Worth: $1.15 billion
Ana Lucia de Mattos Barretto Villela belongs to one of Brazil’s oldest and most distinguished banking families. She is one of the largest individual shareholders of a holding company that controls Unibanco Holding S.A., one of Brazil’s largest banks.

No. 26: Lee Seo-Hyun
Age: 39
Net Worth: $1 billion
She is the youngest daughter of Samsung Chairman Lee Kun-Hee. A graduate of the Parsons School of Design, she is vice president of the luxury goods and fashion division of Cheil Industries (part of the Samsung Group), as well as a vice president at Cheil Worldwide, Korea’s largest advertising firm.

No. 27: Fang Wei
Age: 39
Net Worth: $1.5 billion
Fang Wei is best known for buying turnaround situations, especially those in the steel industry. Fangda Group now has more than 30,000 employees across more than 10 provinces in China.

No. 28: Sergey Brin
Age: 39
Net Worth: $22.8 billion
The Google cofounder is now director of special projects at the Mountain View, Calif. search giant, leaving his counterpart Larry Page to handle most day-to-day operations. Brin oversees the company’s foray into hardware and futuristic endeavors like driverless cars and augmented reality spectacles known as Google Glass.

No. 29: Larry Page
Age: 39
Net Worth: $23 billion
Google’s cofounder and CEO since April 2011, Page saw the company through the $50 billion revenue milestone in 2012. The stock rose nearly 30% in the past year, adding more than $4 billion to Page’s net worth.

An earlier version of this article incorrectly stated that there are 23 billionaires under 40 years old on the Forbes Billionaires list. It has been updated to reflect the change.

The World’s Billionaries List – Full 2013

Source: Forbes

Net Worth Calculated March 2013
.

Rank Name Net Worth Age Source Country of Citizenship
1

Carlos Slim Helu & family

$73 B 73 telecom Mexico
2

Bill Gates

$67 B 57 Microsoft United States
3

Amancio Ortega

$57 B 76 Zara Spain
4

Warren Buffett

$53.5 B 82 Berkshire Hathaway United States
5

Larry Ellison

$43 B 68 Oracle United States
6

Charles Koch

$34 B 77 diversified United States
6

David Koch

$34 B 72 diversified United States
8

Li Ka-shing

$31 B 84 diversified Hong Kong
9

Liliane Bettencourt & family

$30 B 90 L’Oreal France
10

Bernard Arnault & family

$29 B 64 LVMH France
11

Christy Walton & family

$28.2 B 58 Wal-Mart United States
12

Stefan Persson

$28 B 65 H&M Sweden
13

Michael Bloomberg

$27 B 71 Bloomberg LP United States
14

Jim Walton

$26.7 B 65 Wal-Mart United States
15

Sheldon Adelson

$26.5 B 79 casinos United States
16

Alice Walton

$26.3 B 63 Wal-Mart United States
17

S. Robson Walton

$26.1 B 69 Wal-Mart United States
18

Karl Albrecht

$26 B 93 Aldi Germany
19

Jeff Bezos

$25.2 B 49 Amazon.com United States
20

Larry Page

$23 B 39 Google United States
21

Sergey Brin

$22.8 B 39 Google United States
22

Mukesh Ambani

$21.5 B 55 petrochemicals, oil & gas India
23

Michele Ferrero & family

$20.4 B 87 chocolates Italy
24

Lee Shau Kee

$20.3 B 85 diversified Hong Kong
24

David Thomson & family

$20.3 B 55 media Canada
26

Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal Alsaud

$20 B 58 investments Saudi Arabia
26

Carl Icahn

$20 B 77 leveraged buyouts United States
26

Thomas & Raymond Kwok & family

$20 B real estate Hong Kong
29

Dieter Schwarz

$19.5 B 73 retail Germany
30

George Soros

$19.2 B 82 hedge funds United States
31

Theo Albrecht, Jr. & family

$18.9 B 62 Aldi, Trader Joe’s Germany
32

Alberto Bailleres Gonzalez & family

$18.2 B 81 mining Mexico
33

Jorge Paulo Lemann

$17.8 B 73 beer Brazil
34

Alisher Usmanov

$17.6 B 59 steel, telecom, investments Russia
35

Iris Fontbona & family

$17.4 B 70 mining Chile
36

Forrest Mars, Jr.

$17 B 81 candy United States
36

Jacqueline Mars

$17 B 73 candy United States
36

John Mars

$17 B 76 candy United States
36

Georgina Rinehart

$17 B 59 mining Australia
40

German Larrea Mota Velasco & family

$16.7 B 59 mining Mexico
41

Mikhail Fridman

$16.5 B 48 oil, banking, telecom Russia
41

Lakshmi Mittal

$16.5 B 62 steel India
43

Aliko Dangote

$16.1 B 55 cement, sugar, flour Nigeria
44

Len Blavatnik

$16 B 55 diversified United States
44

Cheng Yu-tung

$16 B 87 diversified Hong Kong
46

Joseph Safra

$15.9 B 74 banking Brazil
47

Rinat Akhmetov

$15.4 B 46 steel, coal Ukraine
47

Leonid Mikhelson

$15.4 B 57 gas, chemicals Russia
49

Leonardo Del Vecchio

$15.3 B 77 eyeglasses Italy
49

Michael Dell

$15.3 B 48 Dell United States
51

Steve Ballmer

$15.2 B 56 Microsoft United States
52

Viktor Vekselberg

$15.1 B 55 oil, metals Russia
53

Paul Allen

$15 B 60 Microsoft, investments United States
53

Francois Pinault & family

$15 B 76 retail France
55

Vagit Alekperov

$14.8 B 62 Lukoil Russia
56

Phil Knight

$14.4 B 75 Nike United States
56

Andrey Melnichenko

$14.4 B 41 coal, fertilizers Russia
58

Dhanin Chearavanont & family

$14.3 B 73 food Thailand
58

Susanne Klatten

$14.3 B 50 BMW, pharmaceuticals Germany
58

Vladimir Potanin

$14.3 B 52 metals Russia
61

Michael Otto & family

$14.2 B 69 retail, real estate Germany
62

Vladimir Lisin

$14.1 B 56 steel, transport Russia
62

Gennady Timchenko

$14.1 B 60 oil & gas Russia
64

Luis Carlos Sarmiento

$13.9 B 80 banking Colombia
65

Mohammed Al Amoudi

$13.5 B 68 oil, diversified Saudi Arabia
66

Tadashi Yanai & family

$13.3 B 64 retail Japan
66

Mark Zuckerberg

$13.3 B 28 Facebook United States
68

Henry Sy & family

$13.2 B 88 diversified Philippines
69

Donald Bren

$13 B 80 real estate United States
69

Serge Dassault & family

$13 B 87 aviation France
69

Lee Kun-Hee

$13 B 71 Samsung South Korea
69

Mikhail Prokhorov

$13 B 47 investments Russia
73

Alexey Mordashov

$12.8 B 47 steel, investments Russia
74

Antonio Ermirio de Moraes & family

$12.7 B 84 diversified Brazil
74

Abigail Johnson

$12.7 B 51 money management United States
76

Ray Dalio

$12.5 B 63 hedge funds United States
76

Robert Kuok

$12.5 B 89 diversified Malaysia
78

Miuccia Prada

$12.4 B 63 Prada Italy
79

Ronald Perelman

$12.2 B 70 leveraged buyouts United States
80

Anne Cox Chambers

$12 B 93 media United States
81

Stefan Quandt

$11.9 B 46 BMW Germany
82

Ananda Krishnan

$11.7 B 74 telecoms Malaysia
82

Alejandro Santo Domingo Davila

$11.7 B 36 beer Colombia
82

James Simons

$11.7 B 74 hedge funds United States
82

Charoen Sirivadhanabhakdi

$11.7 B 68 drinks Thailand
86

Zong Qinghou

$11.6 B 67 beverages China
87

Dirce Navarro De Camargo & family

$11.5 B construction Brazil
87

John Fredriksen

$11.5 B 68 shipping Cyprus
89

Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor & family

$11.4 B 61 real estate United Kingdom
90

Harold Hamm

$11.3 B 67 oil & gas United States
91

Rupert Murdoch

$11.2 B 81 News Corp United States
91

John Paulson

$11.2 B 57 hedge funds United States
91

Azim Premji

$11.2 B 67 software India
94

Ernesto Bertarelli & family

$11 B 47 biotech, investments Switzerland
94

Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken

$11 B 58 Heineken Netherlands
94

Hans Rausing

$11 B 86 packaging Sweden
94

Jack Taylor & family

$11 B 90 Enterprise Rent-A-Car United States
98

Lui Che Woo

$10.7 B 83 gaming Hong Kong
98

Laurene Powell Jobs & family

$10.7 B 49 Apple, Disney United States
100

Eike Batista

$10.6 B 56 mining, oil Brazil

http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/#page:1_sort:0_direction:asc_search:_filter:All%20industries_filter:All%20countries_filter:All%20states

The first healed dinosaur wound discovered

Source: nationalgeographic

An illustration of a dinosaur biting an Edmontosaurus.

Tyrannosaurus rex goes after a duckbilled dinosaur in this artist’s conception.

Illustration courtesy Robert DePalma

A fossilized scar.

The scar. Photograph courtesy Robert DePalma

A scar on the face of a duckbill dinosaur received after a close encounter with a Tyrannosaurus rex is the first clear case of a healed dinosaur wound, scientists say.

The finding, detailed in the current issue of the journal Cretaceous Research, also reveals that the healing properties of dinosaur skin were likely very similar to that of modern reptiles.

The lucky dinosaur was an adult Edmontosaurus annectens, a species of duckbill dinosaur that lived in what is today the Hell Creek region of South Dakota about 65 to 67 million years ago. (Explore a prehistoric time line.)

A teardrop-shaped patch of fossilized skin about 5 by 5 inches (12 by 14 centimeters) that was discovered with the creature’s bones and is thought to have come from above its right eye, includes an oval-shaped section that is incongruous with the surrounding skin. (Related: “‘Dinosaur Mummy’ Found; Have Intact Skin, Tissue.”)

Bruce Rothschild, a professor of medicine at the University of Kansas and Northeast Ohio Medical University, said the first time he laid eyes on it, it was “quite clear” to him that he was looking at an old wound.

“That was unequivocal,” said Rothschild, who is a co-author of the new study.

A Terrible Attacker

The skull of the scarred Edmontosaurus also showed signs of trauma, and from the size and shape of the marks on the bone, Rothschild and fellow co-author Robert DePalma, a paleontologist at the Palm Beach Museum of Natural History in Florida, speculate the creature was attacked by a T. rex.

It’s likely, though still unproven, that both the skin wound and the skull injury were sustained during the same attack, the scientists say. The wound “was large enough to have been a claw or a tooth,” Rothschild said.

Rothschild and DePalma also compared the dinosaur wound to healed wounds on modern reptiles, including iguanas, and found the scar patterns to be nearly identical.

It isn’t surprising that the wounds would be similar, said paleontologist David Burnham of the University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute, since dinosaurs and lizards are distant cousins.

“That’s kind of what we would expect,” said Burnham, who was not involved in the study. “It’s what makes evolution work—that we can depend on this.”

Dog-Eat-Dog

Phil Bell, a paleontologist with the Pipestone Creek Dinosaur Initiative in Canada who also was not involved in the research, called the Edmontosaurus fossil “a really nicely preserved animal with a very obvious scar.”

He’s not convinced, however, that it was caused by a predator attack. The size of the scar is relatively small, Bell said, and would also be consistent with the skin being pierced in some other accident such as a fall.

“But certainly the marks that you see on the skull, those are [more consistent] with Tyrannosaur-bitten bones,” he added.

Prior to the discovery, scientists knew of one other case of a dinosaur wound. But in that instance, it was an unhealed wound that scientists think was inflicted by scavengers after the creature was already dead.

It’s very likely that this particular Edmontosaurus wasn’t the only dinosaur to sport scars, whether from battle wounds or accidents, Bell added.

“I would imagine just about every dinosaur walking around had similar scars,” he said. (Read about “Extreme Dinosaurs” in National Geographic magazine.)

“Tigers and lions have scarred noses, and great white sharks have got dings on their noses and nips taken out of their fins. It’s a dog-eat-dog world out there, and [Edmontosaurus was] unfortunately in the line of fire from some pretty big and nasty predators … This one was just lucky to get away.”

Mysterious Escape

Just how Edmontosaurus survived a T. rex attack is still unclear. “Escape from a T. rex is something that we wouldn’t think would happen,” Burnham said.

Duckbill dinosaurs, also known as Hadrosaurs, were not without defenses. Edmontosaurus, for example, grew up to 30 feet (9 meters) in length, and could swipe its hefty tail or kick its legs to fell predators.

Furthermore, they were fast. “Hadrosaurs like Edmontosaurus had very powerful [running] muscles, which would have made them difficult to catch once they’d taken flight,” Bell said.

Duckbills were also herd animals, so maybe this one escaped with help from neighbors. Or perhaps the T. rex that attacked it was young. “There’s something surrounding this case that we don’t know yet,” Burnham said.

Figuring out the details of the story is part of what makes paleontology exciting, he added. “We construct past lives. We can go back into a day in the life of this animal and talk about an attack and [about] it getting away. That’s pretty cool.”